Untitled Document


Liriomyza Parasitoids in Southeast Asia.

Nicole Fisher¹, Rosichon Ubaidillah², Placido Reina¹'³ and John La Salle¹

¹CSIRO Entomology, GPO Box 1700, Canberra, AUSTRALIA- john.lasalle@csiro.au
²Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, LIPI, Gedung Widyasatwaloka, Jln Raya km 46,
Cibinong, Bogor 16911 INDONESIA
³Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Fitosanitarie, Sezione Entomologia agraria -
University of Catania, via S. Sofia, 98 - 95124 Catania, ITALY - preina@unict.it


Project Team


Leafmining insects are dangerous pests that reduce plant metabolic activities and can lead to desiccation and premature fall of the leaves. If leaves are seriously attacked, crops can be reduced or seedling plants even totally destroyed (Spencer, 1990). The leafmining habit is found in several Lepidoptera and Diptera species, and also in some Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Among these, the Agromyzidae (Diptera) is known primarily as a family of leafminers, as the majority (75%) of the almost 2000 known species display this biology. They are pests of economic relevance of numerous vegetables and floricultural crops in all the regions of the world. Several of these species are particularly capable of causing extensive economic damage to a large range of host plants under both field and greenhouse conditions (Spencer, 1973; 1990).
Biological control is a preferred option for control for these serpentine leafminers (Minkenberg & van Lenteren, 1986; Waterhouse & Norris, 1987; Johnson, 1993), as chemical control measures have in many cases been ineffective. This has been due to indiscriminate use of insecticides, their negative impact on natural enemies, and the development of resistance (Rauf & Shepard, 1999; Murphy & La Salle, 1999). Sustainable control of agromyzids could include conservation or enhancement of local natural enemies and/or the introduction of appropriate natural enemies from the area of origin of the pest or from related leafminers from other areas. However, these strategies are not mutually exclusive, as it is clear that any introductions should take into account the existing local natural enemy community. Although there is a rich and diverse fauna of leafminer parasitoids, many of these are generalists and care must be taken in deciding whether or not to introduce exotic natural enemies. Murphy & La Salle (1999) recommended that, due to the prevalence and often general nature of leafminer parasitoids, effort should be put into understanding and conserving indigenous leafminer parasitoids rather than relying solely on the introduction of exotic parasitoids.
Investigations on the natural enemy communities of leafminers have shown that there is generally a large number of natural enemies, in particular numerous Hymenoptera parasitoids belonging to the families Eulophidae and Pteromalidae (Chalcidoidea), Braconidae (Ichneumonoidea) and Eucoilidae (Cynipoidea).


The authors wish to acknowledge the following people.


For technical support and or advice on the working of Lucid :

Suellen Slater : CSIRO Communications, Canberra, Australia
Lilys Koesmarno : CSIRO Information Technology, Canberra, Australia.
Dan Campbell and Matt Taylor : Centre for Biological Information Technology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

For information concerning parasitoid taxonomy and/or biology, as well as loan of material :

Sergey A. Belokobylskij : Zoological Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
Matthew Buffington : University of California, Riverside, U.S.A.
Suzanne Lewis and John Noyes : The Natural History Museum, London, UK.
Robert Wharton : Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, U.S.A.

For providing the illustration of the Liriomyza fly used on the home page :

Georg Goergen : IITA Biodiversity Centre, Cotonou, Benin.

Project Team

This key was developed as part of an ACIAR project (CP/2000/090).
We would like to thank all the members of the project team who contributed information, advice, hospitalilty and friendship.

Damayanti Buchori, Purnama Hidayat, Dadan Hindayana, Nina Maryana, Djoko Prijono, Aunu Rauf and I Wayan Winasa : Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
La Daha :
Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture & Forestry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia.
Elske van de Fliert and Warsito Tantowijoyo : International Potato Centre, Regional Office for East and Southeast Asia and the Pacific (CIP ESEAP), Bogor, Indonesia.
Firdos Nurdin : Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Sukarami [Sukarami Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology] (BPTP Sukarami), Indonesia.
Dantje Sembel : Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Sam Ratulangi University (UNSRAT), Manado, Indonesia.
I Wayan Supartha : Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University, Denpasar, Indonesia.
Mallik Malipatil, Wendy Morgan and Peter Ridland : Victorian Department of Primary Industries, Melbourne, Australia.
Tracey Bjorksten, Ary Hoffmann and Michelle Robinson : CESAR, Department of Genetics, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
Paul Ferrar : Research Program Manager, Crop Sciences 2, ACIAR, Canberra, Australia.

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