Liriomyza Parasitoids in Southeast
Rosichon Ubaidillah², Placido Reina¹'³
and John La
GPO Box 1700, Canberra, AUSTRALIA- email@example.com
²Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, LIPI, Gedung Widyasatwaloka, Jln
Raya km 46,
Cibinong, Bogor 16911 INDONESIA
³Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie
Fitosanitarie, Sezione Entomologia agraria -
University of Catania, via S. Sofia, 98 - 95124 Catania, ITALY - firstname.lastname@example.org
Leafmining insects are dangerous pests that reduce plant
metabolic activities and can lead to desiccation and premature fall
of the leaves. If leaves are seriously attacked, crops can be reduced
or seedling plants even totally destroyed (Spencer,
1990). The leafmining habit is found in several Lepidoptera and
Diptera species, and also in some Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Among
these, the Agromyzidae (Diptera) is known primarily as a family of leafminers,
as the majority (75%) of the almost 2000 known species display this
biology. They are pests of economic relevance of numerous vegetables
and floricultural crops in all the regions of the world. Several of
these species are particularly capable of causing extensive economic
damage to a large range of host plants under both field and greenhouse
conditions (Spencer, 1973;
Biological control is a preferred option for control for these serpentine
leafminers (Minkenberg & van Lenteren,
1986; Waterhouse & Norris,
1987; Johnson, 1993), as chemical
control measures have in many cases been ineffective. This has been
due to indiscriminate use of insecticides, their negative impact on
natural enemies, and the development of resistance (Rauf
& Shepard, 1999; Murphy
& La Salle, 1999). Sustainable control of agromyzids could include
conservation or enhancement of local natural enemies and/or the introduction
of appropriate natural enemies from the area of origin of the pest or
from related leafminers from other areas. However, these strategies
are not mutually exclusive, as it is clear that any introductions should
take into account the existing local natural enemy community. Although
there is a rich and diverse fauna of leafminer parasitoids, many of
these are generalists and care must be taken in deciding whether or
not to introduce exotic natural enemies. Murphy
& La Salle (1999) recommended that, due to the prevalence and
often general nature of leafminer parasitoids, effort should be put
into understanding and conserving indigenous leafminer parasitoids rather
than relying solely on the introduction of exotic parasitoids.
Investigations on the natural enemy communities of leafminers have shown
that there is generally a large number of natural enemies, in particular
numerous Hymenoptera parasitoids belonging to the families Eulophidae
and Pteromalidae (Chalcidoidea), Braconidae
(Ichneumonoidea) and Eucoilidae (Cynipoidea).
The authors wish to acknowledge the following people.
For technical support
and or advice on the working of Lucid :
Suellen Slater : CSIRO Communications, Canberra, Australia
Lilys Koesmarno : CSIRO Information Technology, Canberra, Australia.
Dan Campbell and Matt Taylor : Centre for Biological Information
Technology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
concerning parasitoid taxonomy and/or biology, as well as loan of material
Sergey A. Belokobylskij : Zoological Institute Russian Academy
of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
Matthew Buffington : University of California, Riverside,
Suzanne Lewis and John Noyes : The Natural History Museum,
Robert Wharton : Texas A&M University, College Station,
For providing the
illustration of the Liriomyza fly used on the home page :
Georg Goergen : IITA Biodiversity Centre, Cotonou, Benin.
This key was developed as part of an ACIAR project (CP/2000/090).
We would like to thank all the members of the project team who contributed
information, advice, hospitalilty and friendship.
Damayanti Buchori, Purnama Hidayat, Dadan Hindayana, Nina Maryana,
Djoko Prijono, Aunu Rauf and I Wayan Winasa : Department of Plant
Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University
La Daha : Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture
& Forestry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia.
Elske van de Fliert and Warsito Tantowijoyo : International
Potato Centre, Regional Office for East and Southeast Asia and the
Pacific (CIP ESEAP), Bogor, Indonesia.
Firdos Nurdin : Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Sukarami
[Sukarami Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology] (BPTP
Dantje Sembel : Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty
of Agriculture, Sam Ratulangi University (UNSRAT), Manado, Indonesia.
I Wayan Supartha : Department of Plant Pests and Diseases,
Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University, Denpasar, Indonesia.
Mallik Malipatil, Wendy Morgan and Peter Ridland : Victorian
Department of Primary Industries, Melbourne, Australia.
Tracey Bjorksten, Ary Hoffmann and Michelle Robinson : CESAR,
Department of Genetics, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
Paul Ferrar : Research Program Manager, Crop Sciences 2, ACIAR,