ApolinusPope & Lawrence
Updated August 2007.

Platyomus Mulsant, 1853: 285. TS: Platyomus lividigaster Mulsant, 1853 (junior homonym).
Scymnodes (Apolinus) Pope & Lawrence, 1990: 244 (replacement name).

Apolinus is very similar to Scymnodes sharing similar body form, armed tibial apices, shape of postcoxal lines. Apolinus differs from Scymnodes by 11-segmented antenna, weakly emarginate eyes, not thickened pronotal margins, shorter abdominal postcoxal lines and different aedeagus structure. Many species of this genus are often mixed up with former Amidellus (=Diomus) sharing similar size and colouration. Apolinus is easily distinguished by its complete and recurved postcoxal lines on abdominal ventrite 1, the metaventral postcoxal lines not recurved and separated from coxae, and by much longed and narrower mesoventrite.

Length 2.0-3.5 mm. Body small to medium-sized; head dorsally not covered by pronotum; dorsum uniformly hairy. Elytra black, pronotum often laterally yellow with dark central markings. Eyes large, finely facetted, not distinctly emarginate. Antenna 11-segmented; antennomere 3 elongate; antennal club weak, 3-segmented. Maxillary palps short, terminal palpomere expanded apically. Pronotal disc flat with anterior and lateral margins upturned but without marginal groove. Prosternum long in front of coxae, straight; prosternal process broad, with distinct anteriorly converging carinae. Metaventral postcoxal lines distant from coxae and not recurved. Elytral epipleuron broad, incomplete apically, not foveate. Tibiae with 2 apical spurs; claws on pro- and mid tarsi bifid in males. Abdominal postcoxal line complete and recurved. Male terminalia. Parameres and phallobase symmetrical; penis guide symmetrical; parameres strongly reduced and fused to penis guide. Penis long and coiled, consisting of single sclerite; basal capsule T-shaped. Apodeme of male sternum 9 very narrow and rod-like. Female terminalia. Coxites distinctly elongate, triangular; styli strongly reduced and hardly visible; infundibulum a fleshy lightly sclerotised lobe with sperm duct originating at its base; sperm duct simple, uniform in diameter. Spermatheca worm-like, without clear ramus or nodulus; spermathecal accessory gland adjacent to sperm duct.

Distribution and Biology
Distributed in Australia and New Guinea. Anderson (1982) studied the biology and ecology of A. lividigaster and found this species to be strictly aphidiophagous.

Genus References
Anderson, J.M.E. 1982. Seasonal habitat utilization and food of the ladybirds Scymnodes lividigaster (Mulsant) and Leptothea galbula (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, 30: 59-70.

Mulsant, M E. 1853. Supplément a la Monographie des Coléoptères Trimerès Sécuripapes. Annales de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon (Nouvelle Série) (2), 1(1852-1853): 129-333.

Pope, R D, & J F. Lawrence. 1990. A review of Scymnodes Blackburn, with the description of a new Australian species and its larva (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Systematic Entomology, 15: 241-52.

Slipinski, S.A. 2007. Australian Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) their biology and classification. ABRS, Canberra. 286 pp.

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